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 THE OFFICIAL SITE OF THE EUROPEAN NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME



 

Rear Impact (Whiplash)

Whiplash injuries are common in rear impacts. While the mechanisms by which the injuries are caused are not fully understood, it is known that seat and head restraint design can influence the risk of injury. Euro NCAP assesses the geometry of the restraint in relation to the head and tests the seats in three severities of impact – high, medium and low – using a dummy specially designed for rear impacts. Seats at the top of the table are likely to offer better protection than those at the bottom.

Examples of seats rated Good, Marginal and Poor

Films | Pictures 

Make and model Seat descriptionHead restraint typeScore
Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Astra (2009) Standard, cloth, 2 way manual adjust Reactive

3.7

Mazda logotype Mazda 3 (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.7

Ford logotype Ford Grand C-MAX (2010) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.7

Ford logotype Ford C-MAX (2010) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.7

Geely Emgrand logotype Geely Emgrand EC7 (2011) Standard, leather, 4 way electric Passive

3.7

Skoda logotype Skoda Yeti (2009) Standard, cloth 4 way manual adjust Passive

3.6

Mazda logotype Mazda CX-5 (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.6

Kia logotype Kia Carens (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.6

Volvo logotype Volvo V60 (2012) Standard cloth 6 way manual Fixed

3.6

Volvo logotype Volvo V60 Plug-In Hybrid (2012) Standard textile, 6 way manual Passive

3.6

Seat logotype Seat Alhambra (2010) Standard cloth, 8 way manual Passive

3.6

VW logotype VW Sharan (2010) Standard cloth, 8 way manual Passive

3.6

Mazda logotype Mazda 6 (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

3.6

VW logotype VW Golf Cabriolet (2011) Standard, cloth, 6-way manual adjustment Passive

3.6

Lexus logotype Lexus IS 300h (2013) Standard leather 8 way electric Passive

3.5

Volvo logotype Volvo XC60 (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

3.5

Lexus logotype Lexus CT200h (2011) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.5

Suzuki logotype Suzuki SX4 (2013) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.5

Kia logotype Kia Sorento (2009) Cloth, single control 4 way manual, continuous adjustment Reactive

3.5

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Orlando (2011) Standard, cloth, 4-way manual adjustment Passive

3.5

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes Benz B Class (2011) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.5

Volvo logotype Volvo V40 (2012) Standard textile, 6 way manual Passive

3.5

Isuzu logotype Isuzu D-Max (2012) Standard leather 6 way electric Passive

3.5

Subaru logotype Subaru XV (2012) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.4

Kia logotype Kia Venga (2010) Standard, cloth, 2 way manual adjust Reactive

3.4

Hyundai logotype Hyundai ix20 (2011) Standard, cloth, 2 way manual adjust Reactive

3.4

Kia logotype Kia Venga (2010) Standard, cloth, 2 way manual adjust Reactive

3.4

Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Zafira Tourer (2011) Standard, cloth, 4-way manual adjustment Passive

3.4

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes Benz M-Class (2012) Standard , leather, 8 way electric Passive

3.4

MINI logotype MINI Countryman (2010) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.4

Alfa Romeo logotype Alfa Romeo Giulietta (2010) Standard cloth 6 way manual Reactive

3.4

Toyota logotype Toyota Corolla (2013) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.4

Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Astra GTC (2011) Sport, cloth, 4-way manual adjustment Passive

3.4

Skoda logotype Skoda Octavia (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.4

Skoda logotype Skoda Citigo (2011) Cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.4

VW logotype VW up! (2011) Cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.4

Seat logotype Seat Mii (2011) Cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.4

Honda logotype Honda CR-V (2013) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.4

Hyundai logotype Hyundai i40 (2011) Standard cloth 6 way manual Passive

3.4

Mitsubishi logotype Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2011) Standard cloth 6 way manual Reactive

3.4

Citroen logotype Citroën C-Zero (2011) Standard cloth 6 way manual Reactive

3.4

Peugeot logotype Peugeot iOn (2011) Standard cloth 6 way manual Reactive

3.4

Hyundai logotype Hyundai i30 (2012) Standard, cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.3

Alfa Romeo logotype Alfa Romeo MiTo (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Reactive

3.3

VW logotype VW Jetta (2011) Standard cloth, 8 way manual adjust Passive

3.3

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Malibu (2011) Leather, 8 way electric Reactive

3.3

Toyota logotype Toyota Avensis (2009) Standard, cloth trim Reactive

3.3

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 308 (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.3

Kia logotype Kia Rio (2011) Standard cloth 2 way manual Passive

3.3

Toyota logotype Toyota Auris (2013) 'Sporty', cloth, 6 way manual adjust Passive

3.3

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class (2013) Standard (Artico), 6 way manual Passive

3.3

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes Benz A Class (2012) Standard textile 6 way manual Passive

3.3

VW logotype VW Passat (2010) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.3

Audi logotype Audi A6 (2011) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

3.3

VW logotype VW Golf (2009) Cloth manual seat Passive

3.3

BMW logotype BMW 5 Series (2010) Standard, cloth 6 way electric/manual Active

3.3

Subaru logotype Subaru Forester (2012) Standard cloth 6 way manual Passive

3.3

Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Meriva (2010) Standard, cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

3.3

VW logotype VW Scirocco (2009) Standard cloth, 6 way manual adjust Passive

3.3

Honda logotype Honda Civic (2012) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.3

Ford logotype Ford Focus (2012) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

3.3

VW logotype VW Golf (2012) Standard cloth, 8 way manual Passive

3.3

Audi logotype Audi Q5 (2009) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

3.3

Kia logotype Kia Soul (2009) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Reactive

3.3

Mitsubishi logotype Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (2013) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.3

Mitsubishi logotype Mitsubishi Outlander (2012) Standard cloth 6 way manual Passive

3.3

Volvo logotype Volvo V70 (2009) Standard Seat, Leather, 6 way, Manual Fixed

3.3

Ford logotype Ford B-MAX (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.2

VW logotype VW Beetle (2011) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.2

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 508 (2011) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.2

Qoros logotype Qoros 3 Sedan (2013) Leather, 6 way electric adjust Passive

3.2

Hyundai logotype Hyundai Veloster (2011) Standard cloth, 2 way manual Passive

3.2

Kia logotype KIA Sportage (2010) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Reactive

3.2

Audi logotype Audi Q3 (2011) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

3.2

Volvo logotype Volvo C30 (2009) Standard Seat, Cloth, 6 way, Manual Fixed

3.2

Fiat logotype Fiat Freemont (2011) Standard leather 6 way electric Active

3.2

Ford logotype Ford Kuga (2012) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

3.2

Audi logotype Audi A3 (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.2

Audi logotype Audi A4 (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

3.2

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Trax (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.2

Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Mokka (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.2

Honda logotype Honda CR-Z (2010) 6 way, manual, cloth Reactive

3.1

Saab logotype Saab 9-5 (2009) Standard, cloth, 6 way adjust Reactive

3.1

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Cruze (2009) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

3.1

Ford logotype Ford Fiesta (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.1

Ford logotype Ford EcoSport (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.1

Citroen logotype Citroen C4 Picasso (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.1

Toyota logotype Toyota RAV4 (2013) 'Sporty', cloth 6 way manual adjust Passive

3.1

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Aveo (2011) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

3.1

Kia logotype Kia Cee'd (2012) Standard, cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.1

Ford logotype Ford Tourneo Connect (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.1

Honda logotype Honda Insight Hybrid (2009) standard, cloth trim, 4 way manual adjust Reactive

3.1

Infiniti logotype Infiniti Q50 (2013) Standard leather, 5 way manual Passive

3.1

BMW logotype BMW 3 Series (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.1

Suzuki logotype Suzuki Swift (2010) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

3.1

Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Insignia (2008) Single control electric, continuous adjustment Reactive

3.1

Seat logotype Seat Leon (2012) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

3.1

VW logotype VW Tiguan (2009) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

3.0

Hyundai logotype Hyundai ix35 (2010) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Reactive

3.0

Mitsubishi logotype Mitsubishi Space Star / Mirage (2013) Standard cloth, 6way manual Passive

3.0

Hyundai logotype Hyundai Santa Fe (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

3.0

BMW logotype BMW 1 series (2012) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

3.0

Maserati logotype Maserati Ghibli (2013) Standard leather, 8 way electric Reactive

2.9

Ford logotype Ford Ranger (2012) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

2.9

Toyota logotype Toyota Yaris (2011) Standard cloth 6 way manual Passive

2.9

Renault logotype Renault Koleos (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

2.9

Fiat logotype Fiat Panda (2011) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Reactive

2.9

Audi logotype Audi A1 (2010) Sport', cloth, 4 way manual passive

2.9

Jeep logotype Jeep Grand Cherokee (2011) Leather, 8 way electric Active

2.9

Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Ampera (2011) Standard, 4 way manual Passive

2.9

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Volt (2011) Standard, 4 way manual Passive

2.9

Mitsubishi logotype Mitsubishi ASX (2011) Standard, cloth, 6 way manual adjust Passive

2.9

Nissan logotype Nissan Leaf (2012) Standard cloth, manual adjust Passive

2.9

Citroen logotype Citroen DS5 (2011) Standard, cloth, 4-way manual adjustment Passive

2.9

Renault logotype Renault ZOE (2013) Standard cloth, 2 way manual Passive

2.9

VW logotype VW Amarok (2010) Standard, cloth, 4 way manual passive

2.8

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Spark (2009) Standard cloth, 2 way manual adjust Passive

2.8

Land Rover logotype Land Rover Range Rover Evoque (2011) Standard, 8 way electric Passive

2.8

Jeep logotype Jeep Compass (2012) Leather, 6 way electric Active

2.8

BMW logotype BMW i3 (2013) Standard, cloth 4 way manual Passive

2.8

Renault logotype Renault CAPTUR (2013) Base, cloth, 4 way manual Passive

2.8

Honda logotype Honda Jazz (2009) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

2.8

Citroen logotype Citroen C4 (2010) 4 way, manual, cloth static

2.8

Subaru logotype Subaru Legacy (2009) Cloth trim, continuous electric adjust Passive

2.8

Citroen logotype Citroen DS4 (2011) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

2.8

Infiniti logotype Infiniti FX (2009) Premium, leather, 10 way electric adjust Reactive

2.8

Nissan logotype Nissan Cube (2010) Standard, cloth, 6 way manual adjust reactive

2.7

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 208 (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

2.7

Hyundai logotype Hyundai i20 (2009) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Reactive

2.7

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 2008 (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

2.7

Nissan logotype Nissan Juke (2011) Fabric, manual adjust Reactive

2.7

Nissan logotype Nissan Micra (2010) Base grade, cloth, 2 way manual Passive

2.7

Toyota logotype Toyota iQ (2009) Standard, cloth trim Passive

2.7

Lancia logotype Lancia Thema (2011) Standard leather 8 way electric Reactive

2.7

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes-Benz GLA-Class (2014) Standard fabric+Artico, 6 way manual Passive

2.7

VW logotype VW Polo (2009) Standard, cloth trim, manual adjust Passive

2.6

Skoda logotype Skoda Rapid (2012) Standard cloth 6 way manual Passive

2.6

Seat logotype Seat Toledo (2012) Standard cloth 6 way manual Passive

2.6

Chevrolet logotype Chevrolet Captiva (2011) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

2.6

Lancia logotype Lancia Delta (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Reactive

2.6

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes Benz CITAN Kombi (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Reactive

2.6

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes-Benz CITAN Kombi (reassessment) (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Reactive

2.6

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 108 (2014) Standard fabric, 6 way manual Passive

2.6

Toyota logotype Toyota Aygo (2014) Standard fabric, 6 way manual Passive

2.6

Citroen logotype Citroen C1 (2014) Standard fabric, 6 way manual Passive

2.6

Lancia logotype Lancia Voyager (2011) Leather, 8 way, electric Active

2.6

BMW logotype BMW X3 (2011) Standard, cloth, 4-way manual adjustment Active

2.6

Nissan logotype Nissan Note (2013) Standard clloth, 6 way manual Passive

2.6

Renault logotype Renault Clio (2012) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

2.5

Jeep logotype Jeep Cherokee (2013) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

2.5

Mazda logotype Mazda 3 (2009) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Reactive

2.5

Dacia logotype Dacia Duster (2011) Standard, cloth 4 way manual Passive

2.5

Opel/Vauxhall logotype Opel/Vauxhall Adam (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

2.5

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes Benz E-Class (2010) Standard, fabric, 6 way adjust Active

2.5

Jaguar logotype Jaguar XF (2011) Standard leather, 10 way electric Reactive

2.5

BMW logotype BMW X1 (2012) Standard, cloth, 2 way manual adjust Passive

2.5

Subaru logotype Subaru Impreza (2009) Standard, cloth trim Passive

2.5

BMW logotype BMW X3 (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Proactive

2.4

Nissan logotype Nissan Qashqai (2014) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

2.4

Seat logotype Seat Exeo (2010) Cloth, 6 way manual adjust Passive

2.4

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes C-Class Coupe (2011) Standard 8 way, part electrical Active

2.4

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes Benz GLK (2010) Standard cloth, 8 way electric Active

2.4

Renault logotype Renault Grand Scenic (2009) Standard cloth, continuous manual adjust Passive

2.4

Renault logotype Renault Kangoo (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

2.4

Citroen logotype Citroen C4 Picasso (2009) Standard cloth 4 way manual adjust Passive

2.4

Renault logotype Renault Megane (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

2.4

Fiat logotype Fiat 500L (2012) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

2.3

VW logotype VW Golf Sportsvan (2014) Standard cloth, 8 way manual Passive

2.3

Honda logotype Honda Civic (2009) Standard seat, cloth, 4 way manual Reactive

2.3

Honda logotype Honda Accord (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Reactive

2.3

Kia logotype Kia Picanto (2011) Standard cloth, 2 way manual Passive

2.3

Suzuki logotype Suzuki Alto (2009) Standard, no adjustment Fixed, passive

2.3

Skoda logotype Skoda Superb (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

2.2

Hyundai logotype Hyundai i30 (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Reactive

2.2

Toyota logotype Toyota Verso (2010) Standard, cloth, 6 way manual Reactive

2.2

Ford logotype Ford Fiesta (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

2.2

Jaguar logotype Jaguar XF (2010) Standard leather, 10 way electric Reactive

2.2

Citroen logotype Citroen DS3 (2009) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

2.2

Dacia logotype Dacia Sandero (2013) Base, cloth, 2 way manual Passive

2.1

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes Benz C Class (2009) Standard, fabric, 6 way adjust Active

2.1

Land Rover logotype Land Rover Range Rover (2012) Standard leather 12 way electric Reactive

2.1

Mercedes Benz logotype Mercedes-Benz C-Class (2014) Standard cloth and artifical leather, 6 way, semi-electric Passive

2.1

Toyota logotype Toyota Prius (2009) Standard cloth, continuous manual adjust Passive

2.1

Mazda logotype Mazda 6 (2009) Standard, cloth trim Passive

2.1

Mitsubishi logotype Mitsubishi Lancer (2009) Standard, cloth trim Passive

2.0

Renault logotype Renault Fluence ZE (2011) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

2.0

VW logotype VW T5 (2013) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

2.0

Seat logotype SEAT Ibiza (2011) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

2.0

Seat logotype Seat Ibiza (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

2.0

MG logotype MG6 (2011) Standard cloth 6 way manual Passive

2.0

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 3008 (2009) Single control manual, continous adjustment Passive

1.9

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 5008 (2009) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

1.9

Toyota logotype Toyota Urban Cruiser (2009) Standard cloth, 6 way manual adjust Reactive

1.9

Hyundai logotype Hyundai i10 (2014) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

1.9

Ford logotype Ford Tourneo Courier (2014) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.8

Citroen logotype Citroën Berlingo (2014) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.8

Peugeot logotype Peugeot Partner (2014) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.8

Nissan logotype Nissan Evalia (2013) Standard, cloth, manual adjust Passive

1.8

Renault logotype Renault Twingo (2014) Standard cloth, 2 way manual Passive

1.7

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 308 (2009) Standard cloth, 4 way manual adjust Passive

1.6

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 301 (2014) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.6

Citroen logotype Citroën C-Elysée (2014) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.6

Dacia logotype Dacia Sandero (2008) Single control manual, notched adjustment. Passive

1.6

Dacia logotype Dacia Lodgy (2012) Standard cloth 4 way manual Passive

1.5

Renault logotype Renault Mégane Hatch (2014) Standard cloth, 3 way manual Passive

1.4

Nissan logotype Nissan e-NV200 Evalia (2014) Standard, cloth, manual adjust Passive

1.3

MG logotype MG3 (2014) Standard cloth, 6 way manual Passive

1.2

Daihatsu logotype Daihatsu Cuore (2008) No height adjustment. Passive

1.1

Citroen logotype Citroen C1 (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.1

Toyota logotype Toyota Aygo (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.1

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 107 (2012) Standard cloth, 4 way manual Passive

1.1

Citroen logotype Citroen Berlingo (2008) Single control manual, notched adjustment. Passive

1.0

Citroen logotype Citroen Nemo (2010) Standard, cloth, 4 way manual passive

1.0

Hyundai logotype Hyundai i10 (2008) No height adjustment Passive

0.9

Citroen logotype Citroen C3 (2009) Standard cloth, continuous manual adjust Passive

0.9

Citroen logotype Citroen C5 (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

0.6

Citroen logotype Citroen C5 (2009) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

0.6

Ford logotype Ford Kuga (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

0.4

Citroen logotype Citroen C3 Picasso (2009) Standard, cloth trim Passive

0.3

Mazda logotype Mazda CX-7 (2010) Standard, leather 6 way electric Passive

0.0

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 308CC (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

0.0

Peugeot logotype Peugeot 308CC (2009) Single control manual, continuous adjustment. Passive

0.0

Daihatsu logotype Daihatsu Terios (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

0.0

Suzuki logotype Suzuki Splash (2008) Single control manual, continuous adjustment Passive

0.0

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